History and References

Construction of real_to_virtual converter has been the direct cause of Virtual Respiratory System (VRS) creation [1]. Such a converter enables us to connect a real tube of spirometer or respirator with ... a computer program simulating the respiratory system [2] (also an artificial heart could be connected with a model of the cardiovascular system, for example). Standardization of respirators and spirometers with a ‘Standard Virtual Patient’ could be one of future applications of such connection.

A computer model has to accurately reflect respiratory physiology to be sure that a virtual patient may replace a real one in different cases. Thus, such a model must be complex. Formulas used in our VRS, which describes mathematically knowledge related to the respiratory system mechanics, are presented in detail in [3] (in fact, VRS consists of two models: the model of mechanics and a model of gas exchange and transfer in the respiratory and circulatory systems [4]). Some details are also in [5] (free on-line access).

VRS has been utilized in many own investigations, such as: comparison of different artificial ventilation modes [7, 8], analysis of influence of spontaneous breathing support with CPAP on breathing frequency [5], analysis of cardio-respiratory interaction [8, 9], or analysis of unusual method of artificial ventilation without lungs movement (analysis of conditions of proper blood oxygenation through motionless lungs with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal [10]).

VRS may be of even greater significance in medical education. Tgol.e-spirometry™ system is an example. Intensive care may be another example [11].

  1. Darowski M, Kozarski M, Gólczewski T. Model studies on respiratory parameters for different lung structures. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering 20(2), 2000, 67-77
  2. Gólczewski T, Kozarski M, Darowski M. The respirator as a user of virtual lungs. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering 23(2), 2003, 57-66
  3. Gólczewski T., Darowski M.. Virtual respiratory system for education and research: simulation of expiratory flow limitation for spirometry, Int J Artif Organs 2006; 29: 961–972
  4. Gólczewski T, Darowski M. The virtual cardio-respiratory system — a sub-model of gas exchange and transfer. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering. 28(1), 2008: 29-40
  5. T. Gólczewski, M. Darowski. Virtual respiratory system in investigation of CPAP influence on optimal breathing frequency in obstructive lungs disease. Nonlinear Biomedical Physic. 2007, 1:6
  6. Gólczewski T., Darowski M. Influence of ventilatory mode on respiration parameters — investigation on virtual lungs. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering 23(3), 2003, 63-72.
  7. Darowski M, Gólczewski T, Michnikowski M. Choice of proper lung ventilation method. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, 26(1), 2006, 21-37
  8. Gólczewski T, Zielinski K, Palko KJ, Ferrari G, Darowski M. Influence of ventilation mode on blood oxygenation analysis with lungs and cardiovascular models. Int J Artif Organs 2007; 30: 719
  9. Gólczewski T, Darowski M. Simulation of lungs-respirator system, in: Modeling Cardiovascular System and Mechanical Circulatory Support ed. Claudio De Lazzari, CNR, Roma, 2007: 77-92
  10. T. Gólczewski. Gas exchange in virtual respiratory system — simulation of ventilation without lungs movement. Int J Artif Organs 2007; 30: 1047-1056
  11. Gólczewski T, Darowski M. Virtual case study: Improving of blood oxygenation that fell after position change of an older patient. Int J Artif Organs, 30 (8), 2007: 718
  12. Gólczewski T, Darowski M. Virtual respiratory system and its use in testing of artificial ventilation and ventilatory support methods. Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems 2005; 1: 65-72